Detecting and preventing errors that threaten patient safety is a closed-loop process that begins at the point of care, extends to independent laboratories, and then back to the caregiver. Sample identification and results reporting errors can lead to misdiagnosis and inappropriate treatment with deadly consequences. A 2006 Wall Street Journal article reported that while malpractice claims for pathology errors are relatively low, they are the second most costly. In addition to creating a serious risk to patient safety, sample misidentification creates significant financial implications. Redraws, retesting and additional treatment that result from sample errors cost the healthcare industry an estimated $200 million to $400 million per year.